chapter V- Reported Speech

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chapter V- Reported Speech Empty chapter V- Reported Speech

Bài gửi  phuongthao on Mon Oct 12, 2009 8:28 pm

Chapter V: Reported Speech

I/ Theory
We often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this you can use direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech.
Reported speech - Indirect speech refers to a sentence reporting what someone has said (It is always used in spoken English).
Direct Speech / Quoted Speech: Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech), what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word.
E.g. She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations."
Or "Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.
Indirect Speech / Reported Speech: Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word.
When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too.
E.g. Direct speech: "I'm going to the cinema", he said.
Indirect speech: He said he was going to the cinema
Tense change
As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right):
Direct speech Indirect speech
Present simple
She said, "It's cold." Past simple: She said it was cold.
Present continuous
She said, "I'm teaching English online." Past continuous She said she was teaching English online
Present perfect simple
She said, "I've been on the web since 1999." Past perfect simple She said she had been on the web since 1999.
Present perfect continuous
She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years." Past perfect continuous
She said she had been teaching English for seven years.
Past simple
She said, "I taught online yesterday." Past perfect
She said she had taught online yesterday.
Past continuous
She said, "I was teaching earlier Past perfect continuous
She said she had been teaching earlier
Past perfect
She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived." Past perfect
NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had already started when he arrived.
Past perfect continuous
She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes." Past perfect continuous
NO CHANGE - She said she'd already been teaching for five minutes.
Modal verb forms also sometimes change:
Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to.
E.g. Direct speech: "I might go to the market", she said.
Indirect speech: She said she might go to the market.
You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true
E.g. My name has always been and will always be Lan so
Direct speech Indirect speech
"My name is Lan", she said She said her name was Lan. or
She said her name is Lan
You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event.
Direct speech (exact quote) Indirect speech (not exact)
"Next week's lesson is on reported speech ", she said She said next week's lesson is on reported speech.
Time change: If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting.
E.g. we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting.
Today + 24 hours - Indirect speech
"Today's lesson is on presentations." She said yesterday's lesson was on presentations.

Expressions of time if reported on a different day
this (evening) that (evening)
today yesterday ...
these (days) those (days)
now then
(a week) ago (a week) before
last weekend the weekend before last / the previous weekend
here there
next (week) the following (week)
tomorrow the next/following day
In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there).
E.g.
At work At home
"How long have you worked here?" She asked me how long I'd worked there.
Pronoun change
In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.
E.g.:
Me You
"I teach English online." She said she teaches English online.
Reporting Verbs
Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech.
We use asked to report questions:-
E.g. I asked her what time the lesson started.
We use told with an object.
E.g. she told me she felt tired.
Note - Here me is the object.
We usually use said without an object.
E.g. she said she was going to teach online.
If said is used with an object we must include to
E.g. she said to me that she'd never been to China.
Note - We usually use told.
E.g. she told me that she'd never been to China.
There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked.
These include: accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologized, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought.
Using them properly can make what you say much more interesting and informative.
E.g. He asked me to come to the party:
- He invited me to the party.
- He begged me to come to the party
- He ordered me to come to the party
- He advised me to come to the party
- He suggested I should come to the party.
Use of 'That' in reported speech: In reported speech, the word that is often used.
E.g. He told me that he lived in Canada
However, that is optional.
E.g. He told me he lived in Canada
Note - That is never used in questions, instead we often use if.
E.g. He asked me if I would come to the party.
II/ Exercises

Task 1: Write the sentences using Reported speech

1) An: "Clean the blue bike!"
An told me………………………

2) Jane: "Write a text message!"
Jane told me………………………..

3) Nick: "Help Peter's sister!"
Nick told me………………………

4) Fred: "Wash your hands!"
Fred told me………………….

5) Anna: "Open the window!"
Anna told me…………………

6) Tom: "Come at 8 o’clock!"
Tom told me…………………………….

7) Teacher: "Do your homework!"
The teacher told me………………

Cool Dong: "Dance with me!"
Dong told me………………………

9) Sabine: "Meet Sandy at the station!"
Sabine told me…………………………

10) Victoria: "Check your e-mails!"
Victoria told me………………

Keys: 1. An told me to clean the blue bike
2. Jane told me to write a text message.
3. Nick told me to help Peter's sister.
4. Fred told me to wash my hands.
5. Anna told me to open the window.
6. Tom told me to come at 8.
7. The teacher told me to do my homework.
8. Dong told me to dance with her.
9. Sabine told me to meet Sandy at the station
10. Victoria told me to check my e-mails.

Task 2
1. Peter: "Did John clean the black shoes?"
Peter asked me……………………………………..

2. Henry: "Do you want to dance?"
Henry asked me…………………………………………

3. Jim: “When did you come?"
Jim asked me……………………………………….

4. Justin: "What are you doing?"
Justin asked me…………………………………….

5. Ella: "Did you watch the latest film?"
Ella asked me…………………………………………….

6. John: "Where do you play football today?"
John asked me…………………………………………..

7. Grandmother: "Where are my glasses?"
Grandmother asked me……………………………………….

8. Linda: "Did Max fly to London two weeks ago?"
Linda wanted to know………………………………………..

9. Daniel: "Will it rain tomorrow?"
Daniel asked me…………………………………………

10. Robert: "Is Tim leaving on Friday?"
Robert asked me…………………………………………….

Keys: 1. Peter asked me if John had cleaned the black shoes.
2. Henry asked me if I wanted to dance.
3. Jim wanted to know when I had come
4. Justin asked me what I was doing.
5. Ella asked me if I had watched the latest film
6. John wanted to know where I played football.
7. Grandmother asked me where her glasses were.
8. Linda wanted to know if Max had flown to London two weeks before.
9. Daniel asked me if it would rain today.
10. Robert asked me if Tim was leaving on Friday.

Task 3: Choose the correct answers.

1. "He will come tomorrow".
She told me that he ________ tomorrow.
a. is coming b. will come c. would come

2. "I see the clouds."
He told me that she ________ the clouds.
a. sees b. is seeing c. saw

3. "My mother is taking the bus to work tomorrow".
He told me that his mother ________ the bus to work tomorrow.
a. is taking b. was taking c. will take

4. "I will call you".
I told her that I ________ her.
a. will call b. would call c. would have called

5. "I have been there".
She told me that she ________ there.
a. had been b. has been c. was

6. "I will be studying tomorrow".
I told him that I ________ tomorrow.
a. will be studying b. would be studying c. will study

7. "Open the window!"
He asked me ________ the window.
a. to open b. open c. opened

8."I am happy".
She told me that she ________ happy.
a. has been b. is c. was

9. "I have seen that movie".
He told me that he ________ that movie.
a. had seen b. will have seen c. has seen

10. "I am flying to India tomorrow".
He told me that he ________ tomorrow
a. is flying b. was flying c. will fly

Keys: 1.c 2.c 3.b 4.b 5.a 6.b 7.a 8.c 9.a 10.b

Task 4:
1. Peter: "I cleaned the blackboard yesterday."
Peter told me that…………………………..

2. Emily: "Our teacher will go to London tomorrow."
Emily said that………………………………..

3. Helen: "I was writing a letter yesterday."
Helen told me that………………………….

4. Robert: "My father flew to Singapore last year."
Robert told me that………………………………

5. Lisa: "Tom went to the stadium an hour ago."
Lisa said that……………………………………

6. Merry: "My mother will celebrate her birthday next weekend."
Merry said that………………………………………

7. Michael: "I am going to read a book this week."
Michael said to me that………………………………….

8. Andrew: "We didn't eat fish two days ago."
Andrew remarked that……………………………

9. Alice: "I spent all my pocket money on Monday."
Alice complained that…………………………………

10. David: "John had already gone at six."
David said that…………………………………

Keys: 1. Peter told me that he had cleaned the blackboard the day before.
2. Emily said that their teacher would go to London the next day.
3. Helen told me that she had been writing a letter the day before.
4. Robert told me that his father had flown to Singapore the year before.
5. Lisa said that Tom had gone to the stadium an hour before.
6. Merry said that her mother would celebrate her birthday the following weekend.
7. Michael said to me that he was going to read a book that week.
8. Andrew remarked that they hadn't eaten fish two days before.
9. Alice complained that she had spent all her pocket money on Monday.
10. David said that John had already gone at six.

Appendix A: Look at the pictures using reported speech to say again.
phuongthao
phuongthao

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